Evolution of a Kerr-Newman black hole in a dark energy universe

Jose A. Jimenez Madrid1, Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz2

Abstract

This paper deals with a study of the accretion of dark energy with the equation of state p = wr onto Kerr-Newman black holes. We have obtained that, when w > -1, the mass and specific angular momentum increase, and that whereas the specific angular momentum increases up to a given plateau, the mass grows up unboundedly. In the regime where the dominant energy condition is violated, our model predicts steadily decreasing mass and angular momentum of a black hole as phantom energy is being accreted. Masses and angular momenta of all black holes tend to zero when one approaches the Big Rip. The results that cosmic censorship is violated and that the black hole size increases beyond the universe size itself are discussed in terms of considering the models used as approximations to more general descriptions where the metric is time-dependent.

References

  1. A. G. Riess et al. [Supernova Search Team Collaboration], Astron. J. 116, 1009 (1998); astro-ph/9805201]; S. Perlmutter et al. [Supernova Cosmology Project Collaboration], Astrophys. J. 517, 565 (1999); astro-ph/9812133]; J. L. Tonry et al., Astrophys. J. 594, 1 (2003); astro-ph/0305008].
  2. D. N. Spergel et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 148, 175 (2003); astro-ph/0302209]; C. L. Bennett et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 148, 1 (2003) [arXiv:astro-ph/0302207]; M. Tegmark et al. [SDSS Collaboration], Phys. Rev. D 69, 103501 (2004); astro-ph/0310723].
  3. S. Weinberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 1 (1999); P. J. E. Peebles and B. Ratra, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 559 (2003); astro-ph/0207347; T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Rep. 380, 235 (2003) hep-th/0212290; astro-ph/0411044.
  4. C. Wetterich, Nucl. Phys. B 302, 668 (1988); B. Ratra and P. J. Peebles, Phys. Rev. D 37, 3406 (1988); R. R. Caldwell, R. Dave and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1582 (1998); astro-ph/9708069; P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz, Phys. Rev. D 62, 023513 (2000); astro-ph/0004125; Y. Fujii, Phys. Rev. D 62, 064004 (2000); gr-qc/9908021.
  5. C. Armendariz-Picon, T. Damour, and V. Mukhanov, Phys. Lett. B 458, 209 (1999); hep-th/9904075; J. Garriga and V. F. Mukhanov, Phys. Lett. B 458, 219 (1999); hep-th/9904176; T. Chiba, T. Okabe and, M. Yamaguchi, Phys. Rev. D 62, 023511 (2000); astro-ph/9912463; C. Armendariz-Picon, V. Mukhanov, and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4438 (2000); astro-ph/0004134; Phys. Rev. D 63, 103510 (2001); astro-ph/0006373; M. Malquarti, E. J. Copeland, A. R. Liddle, and M. Trodden, Phys. Rev. D 67, 123503 (2003); astro-ph/0302279; M. Malquarti, E. J. Copeland, and A. R. Liddle, Phys. Rev. D 68, 023512 (2003); astro-ph/0304277.
  6. A. Yu. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, and V. Pasquier, Phys. Lett. B 511, 265 (2001); gr-qc/0103004; V. Gorini, A. Kamenshchik, and U. Moschella, Phys. Rev. D 67, 063509 (2003); astro-ph/0209395]; N. Bilic, G. B. Tupper and R. D. Viollier, Phys. Lett. B 535, 17 (2002); astro-ph/0111325; astro-ph/0207423; M. C. Bento, O. Bertolami and A. A. Sen, Phys. Rev. D 66, 043507 (2002); gr-qc/0202064; Phys. Rev. D 67, 063003 (2003); astro-ph/0210468; Phys. Lett. B 575, 172 (2003); astro-ph/0303538; O. Bertolami, A. A. Sen, S. Sen, and P. T. Silva, MNRAS 353, 329 (2004); astro-ph/0402387; V. Gorini, A. Kamenshchik, U. Moschella, and V. Pasquier, gr-qc/0403062; O. Bertolami, astro-ph/0403310.
  7. R. Bean and O. Dore, Phys. Rev. D 68, 023515 (2003); astro-ph/0301308.
  8. T. Multamaki, M. Manera and E. Gaztanaga, Phys. Rev. D 69, 023004 (2004); astro-ph/0307533;
  9. L. Amendola, F. Finelli, C. Burigana, and D. Carturan, JCAP 0307, 005 (2003); astro-ph/0304325; J. C. Fabris, S. V. Goncalves, and P. E. de Souza, Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, 53 (2002), gr-qc/0103083; Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, 2111 (2002), astro-ph/0203441; A. Dev, D. Jain and J. S. Alcaniz, Phys. Rev. D 67, 023515 (2003), astro-ph/0209379; Astron. Astrophys. 417, 847 (2004), astro-ph/0311056; R. Colistete, J. C. Fabris, S. V. Goncalves, and P. E. de Souza, gr-qc/0210079; H. Sandvik, Phys. Rev. D 69, 123524 (2004); astro-ph/0212114; L. M. Beca, P. P. Avelino, J. P. de Carvalho, and C. J. Martins, Phys. Rev. D 67, 101301 (2003); astro-ph/0303564; L. P. Chimento, Phys. Rev. D 69, 123517 (2004); astro-ph/0311613]; M. Biesiada, W. Godlowski, and M. Szydlowski, Astrophys. J. 622, 28 (2005); astro-ph/0403305.
  10. M. Bouhmadi-Lopez and P. Vargas Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 71, 063521 (2005); gr-qc/0404111.
  11. C. Deffayet, Phys. Lett. B 502, 199 (2001); hep-th/0010186; C. Deffayet, G. R. Dvali, and G. Gabadadze, Phys. Rev. D 65, 044023 (2002); astro-ph/0105068; V. Sahni and Y. Shtanov, JCAP 0311, 014 (2003); astro-ph/0202346.
  12. S. M. Carroll, V. Duvvuri, M. Trodden and M. S. Turner, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043528 (2004); astro-ph/0306438.
  13. R. R. Caldwell, Phys. Lett. B 545, 23 (2002); astro-ph/9908168; A. A. Starobinsky, Grav. Cosmol. 6, 157 (2000); astro-ph/9912054.
  14. R. R. Caldwell, M. Kamionkowski and N. N. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 071301 (2003); astro-ph/0302506.
  15. B. McInnes, JHEP 0208, 029 (2002); hep-th/0112066; S. M. Carroll, M. Hoffman, and M. Trodden, Phys. Rev. D 68, 023509 (2003); astro-ph/0301273.
  16. P. Singh, M. Sami, and N. Dadhich, Phys. Rev. D 68, 023522 (2003); hep-th/0305110; J. G. Hao and X. z. Li, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043529 (2004); astro-ph/0309746;
  17. J. g. Hao and X. z. Li, Phys. Rev. D 68, 043501 (2003), hep-th/0305207; Phys. Rev. D 68, 083514 (2003), hep-th/0306033; D. j. Liu and X. z. Li, Phys. Rev. D 68, 067301 (2003); hep-th/0307239.
  18. P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz, Phys. Rev. D 68, 021303 (2003); astro-ph/0305559; G. W. Gibbons, hep-th/0302199; R. Kallosh, J. Kratochvil, A. Linde, E. V. Linder, and M. Shmakova, JCAP 0310, 015 (2003); astro-ph/0307185; L. P. Chimento and R. Lazkoz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 211301 (2003) gr-qc/0307111; M. P. Dabrowski, T. Stachowiak, and M. Szydlowski, Phys. Rev. D 68, 103519 (2003); hep-th/0307128; V. Faraoni, Phys. Rev. D 68, 063508 (2003); gr-qc/0307086; H. Stefancic, Phys. Lett. B 586, 5 (2004); astro-ph/0310904; V. B. Johri, Phys. Rev. D 70, 041303 (2004); astro-ph/0311293; J. M. Cline, S. y. Jeon and G. D. Moore, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043543 (2004); hep-ph/0311312; H. Q. Lu, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 14, 355 (2005); hep-th/0312082; X. H. Meng and P. Wang, hep-ph/0311070; S. Nojiri and S. D. Odintsov, Phys. Lett. B 571, 1 (2003); hep-th/0306212; Phys. Lett. B 562, 147 (2003); hep-th/0303117; Phys. Lett. B 565, 1 (2003); hep-th/0304131; Phys. Lett. B 599, 137 (2004); astro-ph/0403622; I. Brevik, S. Nojiri, S. D. Odintsov, and L. Vanzo, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043520 (2004); hep-th/0401073; J. S. Alcaniz, Phys. Rev. D 69, 083521 (2004); astro-ph/0312424; G. Calcagni, Phys. Rev. D 69, 103508 (2004); hep-ph/0402126; J. M. Aguirregabiria, L. P. Chimento, and R. Lazkoz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 023509 (2004); astro-ph/0403157; J. G. Hao and X. Z. Li, Phys. Lett. B 606, 7 (2005); astro-ph/0404154.
  19. M. Bouhmadi-Lopez and J. A. Jimenez Madrid, JCAP 0505, 005 (2005); astro-ph/0404540.
  20. E. Babichev, V. Dokuchaev and Y. Eroshenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 021102 (2004); gr-qc/0402089.
  21. E. Babichev, V. Dokuchaev, and Y. Eroshenko, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 127, 597 (2005); astro-ph/0505618.
  22. R. M. Wald, General Relativity (University of Chicago Press, 1984).
  23. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, The Classical Theory of Fields: Volume 2 (Course of Theoretical Physics Series) (Pergamon Press, 1995).
  24. G. Ellis and S. W. Hawking, The large scale structure of space-time (Cambridge University Press, 1973).
  25. C. Wetterich, Nucl. Phys. B 302, 668 (1988); J. C. Jackson and M. Dodgson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 297, 923 (1998); J. C. Jackson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 296, 619 (1998); R. R. Caldwell, R. Dave, and P.J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1582 (1998); L. Wang and P. J. Steinhardt, Astrophys. J. 508, 483 (1998); R. R. Caldwell and P.J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. D 57, 6057 (1998); G. Huey, L. Wang, R. Dave, R. R. Caldwell, and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. D 59, 063005 (1999); P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz, Phys. Rev. D 62, 023513 (2000); J. D. Barrow, Phys. Lett. B 180, 335 (1986); Phys. Lett. B 235, 40 (1990); D. Bazeia and J. Jackiw, Ann. Phys. 270, 246 (1998).
  26. R. Penrose Gravitional collapse: the role of general relativity, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 1, special number (1969), pp. 252-276.
For more information about this paper please visit Springer's Home Page of this paper.



Back to The Contents Page